dietary patterns in Korean adults and their association with cancer risk

Identification of major dietary patterns in Korean adults and their association with cancer risk in the Cancer Screening Examination Cohort.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:
Cancer is the primary cause of disease-related death in Korea. The purposes of this study were to confirm the major dietary patterns and to evaluate whether there were associations between these identified dietary patterns and the risk of cancer based on data from the Cancer Screening Examination Cohort (CSEC) 2004-2008 of the National Cancer Center (NCC) of Korea.
SUBJECTS/METHODS:
This study included 8 024 subjects who completed a written survey on demographics and lifestyles, as well as a 3-day dietary record. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis using the principal component analysis method. The associations between the identified dietary patterns and cancer risk were examined using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
RESULTS:
During a median follow-up period of 9.0 years, 425 cancer cases were newly diagnosed. We identified 4 major dietary patterns (‘rice and kimchi’, ‘vegetables and fish’, ‘fruits and dairy’, and ‘meats and sweets’). There was a negative relation between ‘rice and kimchi’ pattern and the risk of non-gastrointestinal cancers only (highest vs. lowest tertile; multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio=0.60, 95% confidence interval=0.41, 0.88). The ‘fruits and dairy’ pattern tended to decrease the risk of cancer, and the preventive effect was noted only for gastrointestinal cancer risk. However, there was no association after adjusting for covariates.

CONCLUSIONS:
The traditional dietary pattern with high consumption of rice, kimchi, soybean paste and vegetables may decrease the cancer risk among Koreans, and strategies based on the dietary pattern may effectively reduce the cancer risk.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.6.

 

Wie GA, Cho YA, Kang HH, Ryu KA, Yoo MK, Kim J, Shin S, Chun OK, Joung H.
Identification of major dietary patterns in Korean adults and their association
with cancer risk in the Cancer Screening Examination Cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr.
2017 Mar 1. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2017.6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:
28247859.

Nitrites in kimchi

Kimchi is a fermented food product. Because of the way that it is made, kimchi contains a high level of nitrites. Nitrites are known to be a cause of cancer.

A study by the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii and the University of Southern California suggests a link between eating processed meats and cancer risk. The study followed 190,000 people, ages 45-75, for seven years and found that people who ate the most processed meats had a 67% higher risk of pancreatic cancer than those who ate the least amount.

Processed meats are manufactured using sodium nitrite. During the process of cooking certain meats, sodium nitrites combine with naturally present amines in the meat to form carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. When ingested, these compounds are associated with cancer, according to the study.

Cancer and Kimchi by Dr. Joseph C Kim

깍두기 (pronounced kkakdugi ) is a variety of kimchi made with white radish (called mu, 무 in Korean). Kkakdugi consists of spicy radish cut into small cubes. The radish is flavored with salt, red chili powder, spring onions, and ginger. Kkakdugi also involves fermentation, so it probably has similar health effects as regular cabbage kimchi.

It’s going to be difficult to find research studies evaluating the impact of kkakdugi on the development of cancer.

I’m Dr. Joseph Chaiwhan Kim and I found one study that included this word in the abstract:

Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea: a case-control study.

To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with…

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Spicy kimchi

Kimchi is not always spicy. Kimchi is not always fermented. Kimchi is not always made with cabbage.

There are many different types of kimchi. Are you familiar with all of them?

Different types of kimchi linked to gastric cancer

There are many different types of kimchi. Let’s look at these 3 types and see how they are linked to gastric cancer:

Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.),
Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.),
Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water)

To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with increased intake of Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.), Baiechu kimchi-stew, garlic, mushroom and soybean milk. On the contrary, a significant increase in the risk of GC was observed with increased intake of cooked rice with bean, charcoal grilled beef, pollack soup, Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.), Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water) and cooked spinach. In food groups, increased intake of soybean products was associated with decreased risk of GC. Intake of citrus fruits rather than total fruits was shown to have a protective effect on the risk of GC, but was not significant. In this study, intake of total vegetables was shown to have a protective effect, whereas high nitrate-containing vegetables increased the risk of GC. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of GC decreased with high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, whereas high consumption of foods rich in nitrate and carcinogenic substances produced during the cooking process increased the risk of GC.

Kimchi and soybean pastes are risk factors of gastric cancer

This 2005 study was titled, “Kimchi and soybean pastes are risk factors of gastric cancer”

World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Jun 7;11(21):3175-81.
Nan HM, Park JW, Song YJ, Yun HY, Park JS, Hyun T, Youn SJ, Kim YD, Kang JW, Kim H.
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, 12 Kaeshin-dong, Hungdok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk 361-763, Korea.

Abstract

AIM:
This case-control study investigated the effects of kimchi, soybean paste, fresh vegetables, nonfermented alliums, nonfermented seafood, nonfermented soybean foods, and the genetic polymorphisms of some metabolic enzymes on the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans.

METHODS:
We studied 421 gastric cancer patients and 632 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding their food intake pattern. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) were investigated.

RESULTS:
A decreased risk of gastric cancer was noted among people with high consumption of nonfermented alliums and nonfermented seafood. On the other hand, consumption of kimchi, and soybean pastes was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype showed a significantly increased risk for gastric cancer. Increased intake of kimchi or soybean pastes was a significant risk factor for the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the GSTM1 non-null, the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype. In addition, eating soybean pastes was associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer in individuals with the GSTM1 null type. Nonfermented alliums were significant in individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c2 or c2/c2, the GSTT1 null, the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 *1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype, nonfermented seafood was those with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype or any type of GSTM1 or GSTT1. In homogeneity tests, the odds ratios of eating kimchi for gastric cancer according to the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype were not homogeneous.

CONCLUSION:
Kimchi, soybean pastes, and the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val are risk factors, and nonfermented seafood and alliums are protective factors against gastric cancer in Koreans. Salt or some chemicals contained in kimchi and soybean pastes, which are increased by fermentation, would play important roles in the carcinogenesis of stomach cancer. Polymorphisms of the CYP1A1, CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and ALDH2 genes could modify the effects of some environmental factors on the risk of gastric cancer.

PMID: 15929164 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Hong-Mei Nan, Jin-Woo Park, Young-Jin Song, Hyo-Yung Yun, Joo-Seung Park, Taisun Hyun, Sei-Jin Youn, Yong-Dae Kim, Jong-Won Kang, Heon Kim

Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea

Here is an older study from 2002: Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea: a case-control study.

Int J Cancer. 2002 Feb 1;97(4):531-5.

Kim HJ, Chang WK, Kim MK, Lee SS, Choi BY.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract
To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with increased intake of Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.), Baiechu kimchi-stew, garlic, mushroom and soybean milk. On the contrary, a significant increase in the risk of GC was observed with increased intake of cooked rice with bean, charcoal grilled beef, pollack soup, Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.), Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water) and cooked spinach. In food groups, increased intake of soybean products was associated with decreased risk of GC. Intake of citrus fruits rather than total fruits was shown to have a protective effect on the risk of GC, but was not significant. In this study, intake of total vegetables was shown to have a protective effect, whereas high nitrate-containing vegetables increased the risk of GC. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of GC decreased with high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, whereas high consumption of foods rich in nitrate and carcinogenic substances produced during the cooking process increased the risk of GC.

Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
PMID: 11802218 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Hyun Ja Kim,
Woong Ki Chang,
Mi Kyung Kim,
Sang Sun Lee,
Bo Youl Choi